Wednesday, January 25, 2014


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When a person feels unwell, then he or she may have some disease. Diseases include infectious as well as non-infectious diseases. Infections may be fungal, bacterial, or viral. Apart from these, there can be other infections as well, caused by other microbes and parasites such as plasmodium, pinworms, and filarial nematodes.

Like human beings, other animals also have diseases. These differ slightly from the diseases that human beings experience, but there may be equivalents or variants. Likewise, plants also suffer with diseases. 

Most of the infections require a medium to travel into the host. Therefore, the bacterium that causes cholera enters human body through water. Likewise, HIN1 virus that causes the dreaded swine flu travels through body fluids and air. Some require intermittent hosts, as is the case with trypanosomes, which grow in tsetse flies. When insects carry these disease-causing agents they are referred to as the vectors. Therefore, mosquitoes are vectors for malaria and dengue fevers, whereas flies are vectors for the bacterium that causes typhoid. Some diseases are caused by dietary deficiency such as Osteoporosis, pellagra, beri beri, and rickets. Osteoporosis is caused by calcium deficiency, pellagra is due to vitamin c deficiency, beri beri is due to lack of vitamin B1, and rickets is lack of vitamin D. There are a few which are congenital, i.e., they are inherited, or may come because of some mutations triggered when certain conditions exist. Some dangerous ones such as mesothelioma, which is a type of cancer are caused due exposure to carcinogenic substances such as asbestos. Our nutritional habits also affect our constitution and result in some diet related ailments. Lack of exercise or too much of it can also give us diseases such as arthritis and back pain. Because of so many microbes, parasites, carcinogenic and other harmful substances, as well as dietary and metabolic problems, there are many diseases. Some of these are virtually non-existent in some parts of the world or races, while others are found across all the races, and regions. 

Presence of any disease is identified by its symptoms. These symptoms may be simple pains and/or increase in body temperature. Other symptoms such as weight loss, appetite loss, bowel movements, perspiration, palpitation, etc., are also important. Physicians consider these symptoms in combinations for identifying the disease. For identification of some diseases, pathological tests are necessary. Therefore, the physician may ask for blood tests, urine tests, sputum tests etc., to confirm his suspicions, or to negate such possibilities. There are other modern methods such as sonography, x rays and electrocardiograms, which also help in identifying any internal problems.

Treating diseases may involve using some medicines, changing diet, change in level and type of physical activity, surgery, and/or psychiatric counseling. There are many drugs available today. In addition there are allopathic as well as homeopathic medicines, apart from the medicines that are native to each country. Therefore, the patient can choose which medication is really helping him or her. Today our knowledge about diseases has increased manifold. Because of this, there are specializations relating to classes of diseases. In future, medications will be given as per the genetic constitution of the person rather than general medications. As of now, the medicines that are available in the markets may be good enough for the majority, but there may be a few who do not exhibit expected reaction to these medications. This is because of the genetic composition of the person. The sad part of this is that even viruses and bacteria, against which medications are developed after painstaking research for years using lots of resources, undergo mutations and therefore, fresh research needs to be initiated against the new strain. Nevertheless, diseases such as plague, and small pox are virtually wiped off from the face of earth.

A disease is basically a condition when a person suffers from injuries, distress, tension and social unease. Thus whatever be the deficiency disease basically cause unease and a sense of insecurity to animals and humans.

A disease epidemic is a disease that affects a number of individuals (cases) much higher than would be expected in that area and in that time period. When an outbreak is geographically widespread and affects many individuals of the population speaks of epidemic.

Obviously, we are to speak of an epidemic should experience a "certain" growth, i.e it is necessary to appear a "certain" number of cases. This number depends on many variables, among which the most important are: the type of agent, the type of population, the period of time (eg: season) considered. However, it should be noted that, according to the definition now exposed, it is essential to a significant number of cases lead to an epidemic.

It is very easy to detect an outbreak when a highly contagious infectious disease enters a population or in a territory? unscathed, striking in a short time a very large number of animals.

But things are not always so obvious, and sometimes may not be easy to determine whether a certain increase of cases of illness is or is not an epidemic.

For simplicity we assume that the population is "closed", ie the number of animals has not been changed over the period. Looking at the diagram in which, as usual, we put the time in the abscissa and the ordinate the number of new cases.

In contrast, an "endemic" means a localized spread of disease usually an infectious disease. The increase in the prevalence of the disease affected area remains more or less the same.

A "pandemic" describes the propagation of a particular disease, is the local limit and over wide areas and continents affects a large proportion of the population. For some influenza virus and a global emerging diseases such as HIV or tuberculosis, that is the case. In the vernacular is "endemic" and "pandemic" is often mistakenly referred to as "epidemic".

A high consumption of fiber-rich foods is associated with significantly less risk factors for the cardiovascular system. Decrease obesity, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure and plasma concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, homocysteine and blood glucose with increasing fiber intake in the diet, says nutritionist diploma Bettina Geier of the Society for Nutritional Medicine and Dietetics Association, Aachen.

As the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition published in its latest issue, encourages the study of the French teams of scientists led by Professor Dr Denis Lairon of the University of Marseilles, the recent recommendations for increased consumption food with daily lunch. The researchers had examined in their study dietary records 2532 men and 3429 women of the same age over a period of two years to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable fibers and out. Zi xiu tang bee pollen